A Brief Technical Guide for Beginners
Have you ever wanted to create accurate drawings that look just like photographs? With essential knowledge and continual practice, you may be able to achieve your goal.
In this step-by-step guide, you’ll learn how to:
- Recognize shapes that make up the basic structure of most drawings
- Apply standard proportions for lifelike measurements
- Use the rules of perspective to suggest the appearance of space
- Incorporate multiple types of shading from dark to light
The Elements of Art
Not sure where to start? There are seven necessary elements of realistic drawings.
- A line is a mark with greater length than width going in any direction.
- A shape is a set of closed lines showing length and width.
- Forms are three-dimensional shapes showing length, width, and depth.
- Space is the empty area around objects, and may also be used to create depth.
- Color can be described in terms of hue (pigment), lightness (brightness), and saturation (intensity). To learn more about color, please subscribe to stay up-to-date with future blog posts about the topic.
- Value refers to lightness or darkness.
- Texture is the appearance of a surface. An artwork or design may only look textured, or its surface can actually be that way.
Now let’s learn how to draw step-by-step!
Start with Shapes
Whether you are referencing a person, animal, or object, the first step to drawing realistically is finding basic shapes within them, such as circles, ovals, squares, rectangles, or triangles.
Think about the different types of shapes that can be found within this photo of a pair of hands.
This sketch consists of ovals and circles representing the subject’s arms, wrist bone, fingers, and knuckles. The shirt sleeve was drawn with irregular shapes made of straight and curved lines.
You might also create three-dimensional alternatives, such as spheres, cylinders, rectangular prisms, cones, and pyramids, which you can draw more effectively when using the rules of perspective, a topic to be covered in a future post.
Why is creating shapes a crucial first step? You’re more likely to put an accurate sketch to paper if you focus on the basic structure of a subject before working on the rest of its details. For example, if you heavily outline and start to shade each finger of the above photo one by one before realizing they are distorted or too close together, you would probably need to start again. If you detect that error during your rough sketch of the entire photo, however, you can save yourself plenty of time.
Outline and Shade
When you are satisfied with the shapes you’ve made and the proportions in which you’ve placed them, it’s time to refine what you’ve made by drawing more realistic outlines around them. Some shapes may be combined into single forms with extra space at their intersections, while others might look similar to how they were originally sketched.
When outlined, the combined shapes merge into more cohesive forms.
Make sure there is a wide range of values, or shades from dark to light, throughout your entire drawing.
The placement of these values will vary depending on where your light source—which might be the sun, a lamp, or anything else that gives off light—is located.
In many drawings,
- There is usually a highlight so bright that it is the color of the paper.
- If its surface is smooth, it will gradually transition into a halftone, or medium gray.
- The shadow edge is an even darker part of the subject.
- If drawn along with something else, it may create a cast shadow. The other element may also reflect the light it receives back onto the main subject through reflected light.
- Hard-edged shadows are very crisp and clearly-defined; soft shadows gradually shift from light to dark.
There are many ways to achieve a range of values.
Parallel Hatching: many rows of expressive lines
Contour Hatching: hatch marks that follow the curve of each subject
Cross Hatching: sets of hatch marks that overlap
in different directions
Smudging: smoothed pencil marks
Stippling: small dots
Scumbling: loose, random scribbles
You can more easily achieve very dark or very light pencil strokes with graded pencils. The European pencil grades (often used by professional artists in many countries including the U.S.) range from 9B to 9H; in their grading system, pencils with the label of H beside the highest numbers contain relatively light shades while those with the letter B alongside higher numbers are darker. F and HB pencils are near the middle of the scale.
You are probably familiar with #2 pencils since they’re standard for general purposes. These belong to the U.S. grading system, which ranges from #1 to #4. The following examples show their equivalents to the European scale.
Need to blend your pencil marks? Consider these tools.
Cotton balls and similar products, such as cotton swabs and cotton rounds, are usually the most convenient options.
Tortillons, also called blending stumps, are short sticks made of tightly-rolled paper.
You can also use several types of erasers to lift out dark values.
Pink rubber erasers are marketed to non-artists; they are either in standalone blocks or at the end of multipurpose pencils. Either way, they leave precise marks and are very effective at lifting out dark values.
Gum erasers have a slightly softer texture than those made of rubber and are not as likely to erode or tear paper.
Vinyl (plastic) erasers are very rigid and can lift the darkest shades from paper. They do not leave as much debris behind as rubber and gum erasers.
Although pencil erasers look like pens or pencils made for drawing, their tips are actually made of vinyl erasers. They are best used for small details.
Kneaded erasers are made of soft, flexible material that is perfect for achieving a soft appearance. Since you can mold them into whatever shapes you want, they are great for enhancing small details, too.
Improving your drawing skills may be a challenge, but by discovering exciting and time-saving techniques, you can transform it into a relatively simple and rewarding process! Stay tuned for future posts that can help you apply the rules of perspective, find perfect proportions, skillfully use color, and more.
Have you learned something new and interesting? If so, you may be interested in receiving more helpful tips during a virtual advising call in which we can draw in real time together! Please contact me today for more information.